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Gender <b>pay</b> gap - Wikipedia

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<em>Literature</em> <em>review</em> pecking order theory

Literature review pecking order theory Revenue management and dynamic pricing are concepts that have immense possibilities for application in the energy sector. Both can be considered as demand-side management tools that can facilitate the offering of different prices at different demand levels. This paper studies literature on various topics related to the dynamic pricing of electricity and lists future research avenues in pricing policies, consumers’ willingness to pay and market segmentation in this field. Demand and price forecasting play an important role in determining prices and scheduling load in dynamic pricing environments. This allows different forms of dynamic pricing policies to different markets and customers depending on customers’ willingness to pay. Consumers’ willingness to pay for electricity services is also necessary in setting price limits depending on the demand and demand response curve. Market segmentation can enhance the effects of such pricing schemes. Appropriate scheduling of electrical load enhances the consumer response to dynamic tariffs. Dynamic pricing is one of the emerging areas of research in the retail electricity industry. It is a demand-side management technique that can reduce peak load by charging different prices at different times according to demand. According to the (CIA World Factbook) (), in 2012, the installed capacity for power generation in the USA was 1.063 million MW, whereas that of a rapidly growing economy like India was 254,700 MW. Energy Information Administration) () data for capital costs of a natural gas-driven power plant, we find that huge investments of about USD 54.37 billion in the USA and USD 13.03 billion in India are trapped in installing such peak load capacities. If we assume 5% of the installed capacity catering to only peak demand, then 53,150 MW in the USA and 12,735 MW in India are the peak load capacities. Peaks in load profiles are the result of unregulated demand, and huge capacity addition is required to meet peak load. This peak load capacity stays idle during off-peak periods resulting in a loss of opportunity cost and system efficiency. Dynamic pricing can shift the demand from peak to off-peak and help avoid large capital investments. Retail electricity markets generally offer flat pricing or block pricing. Prices remain unchanged irrespective of demand in the first case, while in the second, the per unit rate of electricity either increases or decreases with increasing slabs of electricity consumption. However, the costs of generation to meet peak demands are high as compared to those for off-peak demand, since most peak time generating units have higher operating costs than base load units. Thus, the above-mentioned electricity prices do not reflect the true costs of generation and distribution. Although flat rates offer uncertainty-free electricity bills to customers, these lead to costly capacity additions. In addition to the reduction in peak demand, dynamic prices also provide each consumer with an opportunity to reduce his/her electricity bill at a constant consumption level, just by changing the consumption pattern by shifting the load. Revenue management and dynamic pricing are economically and technically effective operational research tools successfully implemented in various industries like travel and leisure, telecommunications and online retail. However, real-time dynamic prices are not widely used in the retail electricity sector. A literature review on the multiple aspects of dynamic pricing of electricity has not been done earlier. In this paper, we try to address that gap with a survey of 109 published works that deal with multiple aspects of dynamic pricing. While the review is extensive, it is not exhaustive. Decisions like how to optimize prices, consumption schedules, number of market segments, use of energy storage and generation schedules open up several research opportunities in the field of operational research. We have addressed the following question in the survey: What are the different aspects related to the dynamic pricing of electricity? The technological issues can be addressed with the present state of technological developments. However, educating the markets on the benefits of the concept is also necessary. Further, the identification of market segments along with suitable pricing schemes and supporting programs is necessary for successful implementation. A review of studies on the applications and analysis of dynamic pricing in electricity is followed by discussion on various issues relating to dynamic prices in electricity. These include electricity pricing policies, retail and wholesale market pricing, forecasting of price and demand, elasticity of demand, customers’ willingness to pay, the effect of enabling technologies, electricity market segmentation and consumption scheduling. Finally, the conclusion is followed by a listing of future avenues of research in this field. A list of references used in this paper is provided at the end. Table provide a snapshot of the references used in this paper. In our survey, a majority of the literature is from the USA. Our review also includes literature from the UK, China and India, as well as other countries in Asia and Europe. Analyses of practical electricity data and pilot projects on dynamic pricing show that price and income elasticity of demand for electricity are low, but several lifestyle and behavioral factors can significantly enhance the demand response. Some researchers find dynamic pricing to be quite effective in stimulating a high level of demand response where they observe about 30% peak load reduction. Customers are more likely to reduce rather than reschedule consumption. The best responses are received during hot climates and from high consumption customers. Enabling technology is found to be very helpful in implementing dynamic pricing. Pricing schemes vary from market to market in order to stimulate the best response, and often supporting programs need to be implemented to eliminate customers’ fear of excessive expense. Mak and Chapman () survey 14 utilities in the USA during 1980–1990 s. They note that the price designs are one-part and two-part with day-ahead hourly prices. Customers respond well to high prices and achieve over 30% reduction in peak hour consumption. They find that customer satisfaction depends on bill savings, control over costs, reliability in price notifications, notice time, greater price certainty and service by the company. Customers get dissatisfied with inadequate notice and equipment failure. Customers who wish to continue with real-time pricing prefer better status reports and price updates, access to usage data and the availability of longer contract periods. Bose and Shukla () examine the econometric relationship between electricity consumption and other variables at a national level in India with data covering more than 9 years. They find that electricity consumption in commercial and large industrial sectors is income elastic, while in the residential, agricultural, and small and medium industries, it is income inelastic. Tiwari () studies household survey data from India and confirms that short-run income and price elasticity of demand are low and the upper-middle class provides maximum response price signals. Filippini and Pachauri () develop three electricity demand functions, one for each season, from real data of 30,000 households in India. Results show that electricity demand is price and income inelastic but varies with household, demographic and geographical variables. Charles River Associates () reflect on case studies from China, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uruguay and Vietnam that relate to the implementation of dynamic price schemes (mostly TOU) in these countries. The paper concludes that: (1) Rates should benefit both—the utility and the consumers. (2) Shorter-duration peak periods enable higher customer acceptance of the rate. (3) A significant peak-to-off-peak ratio (3:1 or higher) is necessary for sufficient load reduction and bill savings. (4) Monitoring the impact of rates and modifying accordingly enhances customer satisfaction and cost-effectiveness. Faruqui ) study various experimental findings in the USA and note that sampling should consider an estimate of net benefit of implementation, cost of experimentation, good probability of making the right decision, and internal and external validity of collected data. They propose the gold standard of experimental design which includes control groups and treatment group/groups and pre- and post-data. They propose simple, revenue neutral and cost-reflecting rate design, short peak period, strong price signal and opportunity for significant bill saving. Allcott () studies a real-time pricing pilot in the USA that indicates that households emphasize on energy conservation rather than substitution. Welfare gains over the costs of installing metering infrastructure seem likely but not certain. Borenstein () shows significant transfers in switching from a flat rate to real-time pricing from customer-level billing data for 1142 commercial and industrial consumers in Northern California. Most of the consumers observe from 4% reduction to 8% increase in the bill amount. Implementation of real-time pricing seems difficult if a supporting program to compensate the worse-off cases is not employed. Letzler () performs an econometric analysis of data from California Statewide Pricing Pilot that reveals that customer response to prices varies widely among different customers. Hot days and customers who heavily use air conditioners provide the greatest response. Faruqui ) analyze five dynamic pricing programs (3 of these are pilot and 2 are full-scale deployments) in the USA and show that customers respond positively to price signals regardless of utility or region. Use of enabling technologies provides greater chances of favorable demand price response. There is no universally best pricing scheme applicable to all conditions. Abreu ) observe 15 households in Portugal for 270 days in an interdisciplinary study using electronic meters. They recognize the need for knowledge about customer characteristics and behavior. Although the sample size is small, the authors find potential for improvement of energy efficiency from large consumer appliances. Borenstein () uses stratified random samples of residential consumers of two largest utilities in California to study the likely impact of his proposed approach of opt-in dynamic pricing. He shows that most customers will benefit from critical peak pricing and real-time pricing and low-income households will not be hurt by such tariffs. Zhou and Teng () find low price and income elasticity of demand for urban residential demand in China. Lifestyle and demographic variables play a significant role in explaining electricity demand. Faruqui and Sergici () observe a large variation of demand response in data from 163 pricing treatments in 34 projects across 7 countries in an international database ‘Arcturus.’ The demand response depends on the ratio of the peak and off-peak prices. Consistent results show that dynamic pricing can modify load profiles. Faruqui ) show that customers’ response to dynamic prices increases with enabling technology. Residential customers respond better to dynamic prices than commercial and small industrial customers. ‘Hardship Low-Income Customers’ respond less than others mainly because their consumption is low and indispensible, leaving them with no opportunity to reduce their consumption any further. Pagani and Aiello () develop an experimental system to realistically stimulate dynamic prices and the services of a smart grid using data from wholesale markets and renewable energy setups in Netherlands. Results show average monetary savings of 35 and 20% while using dynamic prices with renewables and without renewables, respectively. The energy savings in both the cases are 10%.) state the contributions of Fred Kahn, an academician and a regulator, in the 1970s, toward the promotion of time-varying cost-based pricing policies for regulated services like electricity. They describe that opportunities for implementation of dynamic pricing opened up with the evolution of competitive wholesale markets, development of cheaper two-way communication technologies and promotion of the concept by the policymakers themselves. They refer to the inferences of several dynamic pricing experiments and note that consumers respond well to TOU (time of use) and critical peak pricing. They suggest that the fear of large redistribution of expenditure is the largest impediment to the implementation of dynamic pricing policies. Their assessment identifies RTP as the best policy with respect to all factors except for ‘bill stability.’ In order to minimize bill risk for customers in RTP, they propose policies like consumer baseline, price ceilings and floors, participation threshold, bill protection, educating consumers and the use of enabling devices. Borenstein () also emphasizes RTP with price protection plans as the best policy for medium and large consumers. Dynamic pricing policies are preferred over flat pricing as these are more effective in providing economically efficient incentives for customers. Kok ) note that electric utilities will prefer investment in renewable energy if there is flat pricing and not peak pricing. However, peak pricing leads to a higher investment in solar energy in the case of diesel generator users. Costello () notes that dynamic pricing policies are mostly voluntary and inefficiently designed because regulators are concerned over their fairness and the benefit over cost of implementation. They also doubt some customers’ price responsiveness, which can lead to high average prices. Utilities are concerned over possibilities of customer complaints leading to revenue loss, non-recovery of the cost of implementation and possibilities that all gains from such implementation may be passed on to the consumer.) prove that dynamic pricing is economically more efficient than traditional flat rate prices since it absorbs consumer surplus, thereby enhancing total revenue at existing costs, and reduces peak loads. Celebi and Fuller () show that flat rate prices are economically inefficient and suggest that in order to improve economic efficiency, the share of RTP customers needs to be increased. However, they note that having more consumers within RTP schemes does not necessarily reduce investments for increasing capacity. Faruqui () relates to a study which states that real-time pricing can induce peak demand reduction of 10–14%, resource cost reduction of 3–6%, market-based customer cost reduction of 2–5% and a social welfare increase by 1–3 million in a year. Hledik () state that both concurrent prices and prices at other times affect the demand response to dynamic tariffs, thus demonstrating the cross-elasticity of demand. They develop theoretical frameworks that address the price formation problem with the cross-elasticity of demand under certain conditions. Skantze ) show that delay of information flow between different markets causes price variations. Prices are correlated only if the markets are connected by transmission lines which are not congested. Stephenson ) mention that variations in electricity pricing schemes may depend on several factors like thermal storage, combined heat and power generation, auto-producers, photovoltaics, net metering, small hydropower plants, dynamic tariffs, renewable energy, green tariffs and consumer characteristics like consumption pattern. Garamvölgyi and Varga () develop mathematical models based on neural networks for modeling consumers’ demand response to varying prices. Their model is used to identify an optimal dynamic pricing through the Mean–Variance Mapping Optimization method. Seetharam ) develop a real-time self-organizing pricing scheme, called Sepia, to compute the unit price of electricity based on consumption history, grid load and type of consumer. This pricing scheme is decentralized, and a grid frequency is used for grid load measurement in smart meters for determining the subsequent unit price of electricity. Mc Donald and Lo (Electricity is traded in a wholesale market for industrial customers and electricity retailers. A gap, however, remains between the wholesale prices and the retail prices. Generally, it is noticed that the price increases in the wholesale market are transmitted quicker to the retail market than price decreases. Johnsen and Jess-Olsen () calculate that a 2.5-Ore/k Wh one-time increase in the wholesale market in Norway leads to asymmetric costs of 2.28 NOK (more than 91 times the per k Wh value) per average customer and a complete pass-through of wholesale price to retail price can take almost five weeks. Giulietti ) illustrate a method of determining wholesale market price through bidding. The lowest bid price is set by the supplier based on its costs of supplying a quantity of electricity for a future time period. Then, a pool of bid prices is accepted from bulk buyers. The selection of the bids is done from the highest priced one, in the order of decreasing prices, till the cumulative demand matches the supply. The last accepted bid price from the pool of selected bids sets the market price. However, the key price design decisions can depend on factors like contract pricing or compulsory pool pricing, one-sided or two-sided bids, firmness of bids or offers, simple or complex bids, price determination timing with respect to actual delivery, capacity payments, geographically differentiated pricing and price capping. David and Wen () conduct a review of literature to discuss bidding by individual participants to maximize their individual profits. They also discuss the role of regulators in limiting possible market abuse by some participants. The survey reveals that oligopoly, and not perfect competition, exists in the market, due to certain characteristics of the electricity market that restrict the number of suppliers. Different methods and ideas are used to model bid prices, which we discuss now. Li ) represent electricity trade as a two-level optimization process. A priority list method through a ‘centralized economic dispatch’ (CED) is used in the top level. The lower level has subproblems of decentralized bidding. Here, hourly bid curves are developed for the CED by using self-unit scheduling based on parametric dynamic programming. Both the levels focus on revenue maximization rather than on cost minimization. Zhang ) use a two-level optimization problem to determine the optimal power flow considering social welfare. They determine a Nash equilibrium along with a market price with all participants trying for individual profit maximization. Krause and Andersson () use agent-based simulators to demonstrate different congestion management schemes such as market splitting, locational marginal pricing and flow-based market coupling. The welfare aspects of different pricing schemes are analyzed in these methods to arrive at suitable market power allocations. Zhao ) explain that the ‘bid cost minimization’ technique, generally used in the wholesale market, actually provides a much higher cost than the minimum bid cost. The authors use game-theoretic approach and propose that ‘payment cost minimization’ is a better technique from the consumer welfare point of view as it directly minimizes the payment made by consumers. Zhao ) use CPLEX’s MIP for this problem to find low efficiencies. They overcome this problem through the ‘objective switching method’ in which the feasible region is reduced by performance cuts to minimize infeasibilities and improve efficiency. Forecasting is an integral part of revenue management. Designing of dynamic prices requires forecasts of future demand, and scheduling consumption requires forecasts of future prices. Forecasting thus provides a platform for planning for the future in case of dynamic tariffs for all concerned parties. This section describes research on price and demand forecasting in the electricity sector. Table Retail price forecasts help consumers to preplan their consumption in a dynamic pricing environment, whereas wholesale price forecasts assist buyers and sellers in planning for bidding strategies. Nogales ) observe improved forecasting accuracy by using the artificial neural network computing technique based on the similar day approach. They identify time factors, demand factors and historical price factors that impact price forecasts. Catalao Electricity suppliers can better plan their supply and generating capacities with appropriate demand forecasts. Demand can be forecasted daily, weekly, monthly or annually. Short-term load forecasts from minutes to several hours ahead are required for controlling and scheduling power systems. Long-term forecasts help in planning investments, overhauls and maintenance schedules. Taylor ) compare the accuracy of six univariate methods for forecasting short-term electricity demand and find that simple and more robust methods (i.e., exponential smoothing) outperform more complex alternatives. The complex methods are seasonal ARIMA, neural networks, double seasonal exponential smoothening and principal component analysis (PCA). Taylor () implements double seasonal Holt-Winters exponential smoothening for within-day and within-week seasonality. This method proves to be more effective than ARIMA and the standard Holt-Winters method for short-term demand forecasting. They correct the residual autocorrelation by using a simple autoregressive model. Taylor () incorporates the within-year seasonal cycle as an extension of the double seasonal model. This triple seasonal model performs better than the double seasonal model and the univariate neural network approach. Wang ) incorporate weather influences in the medium-term electricity demand forecasts that can range up to 12 months. Meteorological parameters, like relative humidity and temperatures (that affect electricity demand), are used along with an autoregressive model to reduce serial correlation for four different climatic scenarios. Zhou, Ang and Poh () show that the trigonometric gray model (GM) prediction approach (a combination of GM (1,1) and trigonometric residual modification technique) can improve the forecasting accuracy of GM (1,1). Akay and Atak () use semi-parametric additive models that estimate relationships between demand and other independent variables and then forecast the density of demand by simulating a mixture of these variables. Mc Sharry ) apply multiple linear regression and artificial neural networks with principle components to forecasts made in India. They use eleven input variables and show that the second method is more effective.) explain that elasticity of demand can be short run as well as long run. In short-run elasticity, we describe the price response from the system with its current infrastructure and equipment. In long-run elasticity, we consider the investments that can be made in response to higher prices during a longer time span. Wolak () observes that electricity markets mostly have low elasticity of demand, at least in the short run. Dealing with low-demand elasticity leads to the implementation of large price spikes in spot pricing markets. He concludes that consumer response is roughly similar for short hourly peaks and longer periods of high price. Ifland ) reveal a steep slope of the demand curve from a study of the German electricity market. However, this field test proves that dynamic tariffs can increase demand elasticity and demand curves are more elastic during winter and less elastic during summer. Kirschen () also observes that implementation of dynamic pricing definitely increases the elasticity of demand. He further notes that demand curves are steep, and shift, depending on the time of day or day of week. Shaikh and Dharme () study the short-term price response in the electricity market of England and Wales. In this case, half-hourly prices are announced 13 h in advance. The authors study cross-elasticity of demand along with self-elasticity. Cross-elasticity is measured as the rate of change of demand for one time period with respect to a change in the price of another time period. They form a 48 by 48 matrix of elasticity coefficients. They further establish that the consumer reaction to a price increase in the short run is rare unless the price increase is significantly high. This low-demand response can be because of consumption scheduling that involves some relatively cumbersome technology. The authors observe that consumers respond more to short-term price hikes than to short-term price drops. They develop a nonlinear elasticity function from this study. However, Braithwait () study a TERI report that uses the contingent valuation method to determine the WTP for additional service features like reliability of supply. However, a portion of the respondents did not believe in the possibility of the improved scenario projected by the hypothetical market used in this process. Consumers find it difficult to comprehend electricity consumption in terms of KWh. Thus, the study phrases consumption in terms of ‘appliance capacity’ or ‘hours of use’ of each appliance. Stated choice experiments can be helpful in this case. Twerefou () uses the contingent valuation method in Ghana and discovers that consumers’ WTP is 1.5 times more than the market price of electricity. The author identifies significant factors that influence households’ WTP through an econometric analysis of the data from this study. Ozbafli and Jenkins () study 350 households in North Cyprus using the choice experiment method. They indicate that the electricity industry can experience an annual economic benefit of USD 16.3 million by adding 120 MW capacity, since consumers are ready to pay more for uninterrupted power supply. Gerpott and Paukert () estimate the WTP for smart meters using responses from 453 German households obtained through online questionnaires. The authors use variance-based ‘partial least squares structural equation modeling and find that ‘trust for data protection’ and ‘intention to change usage behavior’ are the most influential factors for WTP. An ) calculate Chinese consumers’ WTP for shifting from firewood to electricity. They use stated preference data from personal interviews to estimate the parameters of a binary logit model from a random utility model. The authors calculate the probabilities of adopting electricity at different prices. Oseni () explains that the ownership of a backup generator significantly increases the WTP for reliable grid supply in Nigeria. The author uses event study methods and discovers that the higher cost of backup generation with respect to the stated WTP amount causes this behavior. Dynamic pricing enabling technologies help in dealing with price and quantity signals. These technologies provide effective communication of signals to consumers and sometimes also provide a suitable automated response from them. Technology helps in speeding up operations and enables efficient implementation of dynamic prices. Ifland ) conduct a field test in a German village that represents 50% of German living conditions. Consumers respond to flexible prices even without the aid of home automation, but automation technology is required to increase night-hour consumptions. Faruqui and Sergici () examine the evidence from 15 dynamic pricing experiments and reveal that the magnitude of response of retail electricity customers to pricing signals depends on factors like ‘extent of price change,’ ‘presence of central air conditioning’ and ‘availability of enabling technologies’. Thimmapuram and Kim () elaborates that information communication technology (ICT) in a smart grid system increases the electric grid’s efficiency. Applications like ‘appliance control,’ ‘notification,’ ‘information feedback’ and ‘energy management’ make enabling technologies essential in demand response programs. A typical electricity supply curve is nonlinear with increasing positive slopes. The benefit of demand response measures can be best observed at the steeper parts of the supply curve. Faruqui and Palmer () analyze the data of 74 dynamic pricing experiments and find that the amount of reduction in peak demand increases with the increase in the peak to off-peak price ratio, but at a decreasing rate. They derive a logarithmic model and check the variation of demand response with several factors like the effects of time period, the length of the peak period, the climate, the history of pricing innovation in each market, the pattern of marketing dynamic pricing designs and the use of enabling technologies. They find that variation in the price ratio and the effect of enabling technologies are responsible for almost half of the variation in demand response. Wang Segmentation of the electricity market helps in differentiating customers based on various attributes. Attributes of market segments are helpful in setting the range of prices or the time span for maintaining a certain price in a dynamic pricing environment. This section describes research on the basis of electricity market segmentation and focuses on the use of consumption level for segmentation. We also discuss low-income groups as an important segment.) refer to four consumer segments based on socio-demographic variables and attitude toward the adoption of green electricity in Denmark. A majority of consumers in all segments are ready to pay a higher price for green electricity. The authors observe that electricity market segmentation became ineffective because of three reasons—lack of comprehensive data, emphasis on technological solutions alone for demand-side management and a tendency to stay within the traditional broad industry segments of industrial, commercial and residential customers. Simkin ) mention that a ‘bottom-up’ analysis of customer attitudes, usage patterns, buying behavior and characteristics can be useful to develop segments. They develop a directional policy matrix from variables that represent market attractiveness and business capability and prioritize segments. Other factors like consumer service, green credentials, innovative tariffs and guarantee of no price inflation for a certain period also characterize energy market segments. Ifland ) develop a lifestyle typology and create three market segments based on consumption behavior, attitude toward energy consumption and enabling technologies, values and leisure time activities of consumers.) describe segmentation based on load patterns—high level and low level. The high-level segment includes geographical characteristics, voltage level and type of activity. The low-level segment is based on demographic characteristics, regulatory status, price management, universal service, fuel labeling supply and metering resolution. Clustering algorithms are required for further detailed categorization of segments. Varga and Czinege () use smart meter data from Ireland and register the difference in gross margin earned by electricity suppliers from different types of consumers. This data help identify different possible market segments and the characteristics of the most profitable segmentation.) observe the effect of different pricing schemes on low-income consumers and find that critical peak pricing (CPP) is most effective in reducing bill amounts. They propose that the percentage of consumers benefiting from the schemes depends on the rate design itself. Faruqui ) state that low-income customers have low price responsiveness. This is because they have fewer opportunities to reduce consumption due to unavailability of specific home appliances in which the energy consumption can be controlled. Governments need to take up the primary role in creating the conditions for segmentation both in regulated and in deregulated markets. Sharam () notes that unethical welfare motives or improper administrative and regulatory control can bring out the troubles of segmentation in electricity markets. He identifies these ill-effects as redlining (discrimination of consumers in the market) and residual markets (suppliers misusing too much market power) which lead to exclusion and exploitation of some customers on financial or other bases.) develop an energy-efficient scheduling algorithm based on a time-varying pricing model. They use linear programming to obtain a deterministic scheduling solution and use an energy consumption adaptation variable to account for uncertainties. They use the day-ahead pricing data of Ameren Illinois Power Corporation as the input to their model and two sets of solar photovoltaic module of Kyocera Solar Incorporation as the solar energy source for the model. Their model achieves between 41 and 24% reduction of expenditure over traditional deterministic schemes and provides a schedule within 10 seconds. Agnetis ) identify various types of appliances with varying load types like shiftable, thermal, interruptible and non-manageable and then schedule their operations. The authors use a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model and a heuristic algorithm to solve the NP-hard problem. The objective functions are cost minimization and comfort maximization through scheduling preferences and climatic control. Wang ) present a novel traversal-and-pruning algorithm to schedule thermostatically controlled household loads to optimize an objective considering both expenditure and comfort. This algorithm has optimality, robustness, flexibility and speed. The authors propose that this algorithm can be useful in designing any automated energy management system. Hubert and Grijalva () incorporate electricity storage provisions in the scheduling problem by classifying loads as energy storage systems, non-interruptible loads and thermodynamic loads. They use MILP for robust optimized consumption scheduling to minimize the impact of stochastic inputs on the objective function. The objective function integrates electric, thermodynamic, economic, comfort and environmental parameters. Mishra ) observe that greedy charging algorithms when used at large scales shift the peaks causing grid instability. They present a storage adoption cycle incentivizing the use of energy storage at large scales with variable rates and peak demand surcharge. They show that consumers can flatten their demand by 18% of the minimum optimal capacity to flatten the grid demand of a centralized system. Liu ) emphasize the maximum use of renewable resources in a load scheduling problem. They classify appliances based on the type of energy consumption and assign dynamic priority in the scheduling process. Dupont ) state that the renewable energy tariff scheme can be used to increase renewable energy consumption during periods of high renewable energy generation. They use integer linear programming to optimize this scheduling problem taking into account customer preferences. This paper also emphasizes the use of automation in households for consumption scheduling over the year. Hu ) incorporate both active and reactive power demand and generation in the scheduling problem. The authors use a nonlinear load optimization method in a real-time pricing environment. The scheduling of consumption is studied for three customer groups—industrial, commercial and residential, and for three load periods—peak load, flat load and off-peak load periods. Scheduling in individual homes must be linked to the aggregate demand situation. Thus, it is necessary to model the individual household scheduling incorporating the aggregate demand. Kishore and Snyder () point out that shifting the load from peak hours to off-peak hours in each household by means of a same price signal can shift the aggregate peak to the previously off-peak zone. Thus, the authors optimize electricity consumption within a home and across multiple homes. The in-home scheduling model attaches the probabilities of start and stop of operation of any appliance in the next time period. It also considers a cost for delay of start of operation. The model minimizes the total cost of electricity in a deterministic dynamic pricing environment. In the neighborhood-level scheduling model, the authors assume a well-communicated neighborhood where each household has a minimum guaranteed load at each time slot. The neighborhood, however, has a maximum limit of energy at each time slot. The idea is to distribute this available power to all households, thereby minimizing total costs. A second delay cost is introduced into the model to address the delay of starting an appliance after the specified maximum delay time. Luh ) present a ‘load adaptive pricing’ philosophy formulated as a closed-loop Stackelberg game. The authors demonstrate that a team optimum can be achieved through the proposed approach since the utility company can induce cooperative behavior from the customer.) align individual optimality with social optimality by means of a distributed algorithm. Each customer has a utility function and provision for energy storage. This allows them to forecast their total individual demand for a future time after maximizing their individual benefit. The utility company collects these forecasts from all households and generates a price based on its cost function. This price is then published and the individual households reschedule their consumption. After several iterations, the consumption schedule of each household and the price offered by the utility gets fixed. Cui ) describe how scheduling of household loads helps electricity suppliers to maximize their profits and the global controller to maximize social welfare. The authors use greedy algorithm for the first model with pre-announced dynamic tariffs. They also devise a model for the utilities based on consumers’ schedules. Table Dynamic pricing of electricity is a demand-side management technique that is capable of stimulating demand response resulting in flatter load curves. There are several insights that can be developed with respect to peak load reduction, demand elasticity, market segmentation, pricing policy, enabling technology and customers’ willingness to pay. Consumers and regulators need to be educated well on the benefits that dynamic pricing can bring to society without harming the interests of any stakeholder. The interest in this topic is developing, and there are ample opportunities opening up for the acceptance of this concept along with the wide implementation of smart grid technologies. Yo i'm such a good a-level spanish student i've learnt a 500 word essay & i feel great lol too bad i wasn't this prepared the last two times. emile durkheim social.

<strong>Marketing</strong> and advertising guidelines

Marketing and advertising guidelines When considering jobs and employment opportunities, often marketing comes to mind, and you may ask yourself, just what does a marketing position consist of and what do they do? Most people who work in marketing will tell you it provides them with a great deal of challenge which is what most marketers have always wanted. The reason being is marketing is always changing; there are always techniques to learn, cases to study, and strategies to research. Do you have what it takes to be successful in a marketing career? When a person tells you that they work in marketing, there could be hundreds of different types of jobs they may be talking about. Marketing jobs are plentiful and vary based on the company, structure, and type of position that you are seeking. Marketing account managers and marketing account executives are just two types of marketing jobs. In these types of positions, a person would normally be the one that has the day to day contact with a specific customer or client and is their point of contact for any and all issues. Another job responsibility of one of these positions would be to define the marketing strategies for their company to help expand business and grow. They look to you as if you are their consultant, feeling confident that you know how to best market their business. When the customer needs you for something, they expect you to be there. You must be a good communicator and serve as the liaison between your team and the customer at all times. Having advanced people skills are critical to these types of positions because you are face to face with clients and customers constantly. There are also marketing jobs that don’t consist of you working with customers all the time. Careers or positions that would be less people oriented could be ones such as a product marketing manager or a brand marketing manager. You would probably report into an account manager that would serve as the go-to person with customers, and you do the office work without the communication directly with the client. These positions would have a person being responsible for understanding a specific brand or product. You would help to define specific strategies based on the product or brand and have a solid understanding of how you can promote and market their products. You would look at the market, gain information on who wants to buy that to product and what drives the product to sell. You may create presentations to validate your research that the manager could then, in turn, go to the client with. You may be responsible for scheduling a complete marketing plan from start to finish including the budget, communication, and organizing materials. These types of jobs give all around experience in the marketing arena. Careers as a marketing manager are those that are the decision makers. They manage an entire marketing organization and have people under them who they are responsible for as well. Normally a position of the marketing manager is going to require prior year experience with other marketing positions and one can be promoted into a marketing manager job after proving themselves. A career in marketing can take you in several different directions. Marketing is comprised of many facets and activities. You will find that there are many opportunities in marketing, is there a career path that is right for you? Explore the different career opportunities and decide which one interests you and fits you best. Marketing jobs are out there, but the job market is tight. Do the proper research and find the one that works best for you. Once you find it, you will need to market yourself in order to stand out from the crowd to secure the first interview. Just remember, if you can’t market yourself, you will have a tough time convincing a hiring manager that you are right for a marketing position, so be creative. Information about the industry adopted video game marketing principles and guidelines enforced by the ESRB.

<b>Marketing</b> Today -

Marketing Today - "12 Most Common j Query v1.11.1 | (c) 2005, 2014 j Query Foundation, Inc. :input|select|textarea|button)$/i, Z = /^h\d$/i, $ = /^[^{] \(a); = s, = s.selectors, m.expr[":"] = pseudos, m.unique = s.unique Sort, = Text, XMLDoc = XML, m.contains = s.contains; var t = match.needs Context, u = /^]*|#([\w-]*))$/, A = init = function (a, b) ; A.prototype = m.fn, x = m(y); var B = /^(? : Until|All))/, C = ; m.extend(), extend(); function D(a, b) m.each(, function (a, b) ); var E = /\S /g, F = ; function G(a) m. \d |)/.source, T = ["Top", "Right", "Bottom", "Left"], U = function (a, b) , V = m.access = function (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) , W = /^(? )" M "*\]", "g"), V = new Reg Exp(Q), W = new Reg Exp("^" O "$"), X = , Y = /^(? window : this, function (a, b) { var c = [], d = c.slice, e = c.concat, f = c.push, g = c.index Of, h = , i = String, j = Own Property, k = , l = "1.11.1", m = function (a, b) , n = /^[\s\u FEFF\x A0] |[\s\u FEFF\x A0] $/g, o = /^-ms-/, p = /-([\da-z])/gi, q = function (a, b) ; = m.prototype = , m.extend = extend = function () , m.extend(), m.each("Boolean Number String Function Array Date Reg Exp Object Error".split(" "), function (a, b) ); function r(a) var s = function (a) { var b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u = "sizzle" -new Date, v = a.document, w = 0, x = 0, y = gb(), z = gb(), A = gb(), B = function (a, b) , C = "undefined", D = 1 ~]|" M ")" M "*"), U = new Reg Exp("=" M "*([^\]'\"]*? Callbacks = function (a) , m.extend(); var H; ready = function (a) , m.extend(); function I() function J() m.ready.promise = function (b) ; var K = "undefined", L; for (L in m(k)) break; Last = "0" ! 1, m(function () ), function () (), m.accept Data = function (a) ; var M = /^(? :\|\Меню